The genesis of modern Gurgaon is a tank and a village dating to the period of Lord Krishna’s Mahabharata. It is believed that the five Pandava brothers had presented this village to their guru, the great Dhronacharya, as guru dakshina. The 'Dronacharya Well' still exists within Gurgaon city, along with a village called Gurgaon.
Gurgaon was under the control of a succession of rulers appointed by the ruling power in Delhi including Yaduvanshi Rajputs, Mughals, Marathas. It remained under the rule of the Scindhia clan of the Maratha empire. In 1803 the East India Company took control of Gurgaon through the Treaty of Surji-Anjangaon after the Second Anglo-Maratha War. By the mid nineteenth century Gurgaon was part of the princely protectorate of Pataudi which is a part of Gurgaon district today. The British integrated Gurgaon into the Punjab Province where it served as district and tehsil headquarters. After India's independence, Gurgaon continued to be a part of the state of Punjab until 1966 when Haryana was formed as separate state.
The present Gurgaon district comprising nine blocks namely Tauru, Nuh, Pataudi, Nagina, Punhana, Ferozepur Jhirka, Sohna, Gurgaon & Farrukhnagar was created on 15 August,1979. It is the southern-most district of Haryana. The district lies between 27 degree 39' and 28 degree 32' 25" latitude, and 76 degree 39' 30"and 77 degree 20' 45" longitude. On its north, it is bounded by the district of Rohtak and the Union Territory of Delhi. Faridabad district lies to its east. On its south, the district shares boundaries with the states of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. To its west lies the district of Rewari and the State of Rajasthan.
With time, the old village or Gure Gram metamorphosed into the present day Gurgaon. Moving away from the bow and arrow era of the Mahabharata, this city has the arts and crafts of the early medieval period. Ata, situated five kilometres east of Sohna, is an important centre of art belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara period. Two striking icons of the early medieval period representing Uma Maheshvara seated on Nandi and Adilath were found here. Other places of historical importance are Malab, Sanghel and Ujina.
Gurgaon has many historical buildings including the Aliwardi Masjid built about 200 years ago by Nawab Aliwardi Khan, the founder of village Aliwardi. One can visit Qutub Khan’s tomb about 2 kilometres from the Old Thana. Sheesh Mahal, built by local Nawab Faujdar Khan in 1793, is a double story building of local stone, slate and lime with mirror-work inspired by Mughal palaces of Delhi.
Gurgaon remained a small farming village in the neighbourhood of Delhi. The launch of the automotive company Maruti jump started Gurgaon's growth and changed its future. Gurgaon is a major industrial city and is also one of India’s major outsourcing hubs. It has become the IT hub of India and is emerging as the corporate capital. Over the past 25 years the city has undergone rapid development and construction. According to the 2011 census, Gurgaon’s population rose to 15.14 lakh from 8.70 lakh in 2001.